Water, Water Everywhere in the Galaxy #exoplanet #space #NASA

exoplanet populationsScientists have shown that water is likely to be a major component of those exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) which are between two to four times the size of Earth…

Hopefully atmosphere observations in the future — of thick steam atmospheres — can support or refute the new findings.   Goldschmidt Conference

Many of these detected exoplanets are larger than Earth, but it sounds like a lot of that extra mass is water – up to 50% of the planet’s weight, while water on Earth is only 0.02%. Our watery blue world is a desert in comparison.

It makes me wonder… if our Sun had more heavy elements, would Earth be larger? Would it have captured more of the solar system’s water? Would you and I be fish?

We have earlier generations of stars to thank for any watery world including our own. Hydrogen is, of course, everywhere – the most abundant element starting from the Big Bang. But heavier elements owe their existance to fusion within stars and subsequent nova and supernova explosions. That includes oxygen. So water seems to be common in the galaxy.

 

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Breathtaking Goodbye to an Amazing Mission and a Scifi Hello #Cassini #Saturn #scifi #sciencefiction

Cassini's Grand Finale - artist's conceptionCassini’s last transmission arrived on Earth at 1146 GMT on September 15 as it plunged to a fiery end in Saturn’s atmosphere. The spacecraft had run out of fuel, but only after orbiting the ringed planet for an incredible 13 years. NASA sent it to burn up in Saturn’s atmosphere rather than risk contaminating any of the moons – which may harbor life.

We know more about Saturn than ever before – its storms, hexagonal jet streams, rings, and a seemingly endless supply of moons. We also know that an American agency can cooperate with the European Space Agency, the Italian Space Agency, and astronomers around the world for two decades on a single mission (more if the design phase is included.)

Cassini’s mission lasted over twice as long as expected. The Huygen probe that piggybacked along made the first landing ever accomplished in the outer Solar System and the first landing on a moon other than our own.

Along the way, Cassini confirmed Einstein’s general theory of relativity, measured the length of Saturn’s day, studied its fantastic rings, and discovered the amazing variety of its moons – including water geysers from warm water oceans and lakes of liquid methane. It showed scientist and citizen alike that the Saturn system is beautiful – a beautiful pinpoint in a beautiful universe.

If you think the money could have been better spent – tell me, do you believe humanity’s problems come from a lack of money? More likely, they arise from a lack of heart – or maybe from a lack of soul. Cassini gives us wonder, joy, and beauty. It feeds our souls. If you don’t feel that, if you don’t look up in wonder, I’m sorry for you.

One of the greatest legacies of the mission is not just the scientific discoveries it makes, and what you learn about, but the fact that you make discoveries so compelling, you have to go back. space.com

I couldn’t resist sending a cult to colonise Saturn’s moon, Titan.

Read more at wikipedia, watch for ongoing discoveries as scientists study Cassini’s data, and hold your metaphorical breath until we return, or join the scifi colony today.

Salty Waters #poem #poetry #space #planet #NASA

Artist's concept of Casini studying Titan

Artist’s concept of Cassini studying Titan

Salt preserves a water’s flow,
Suppresses freezing in the cold.
Cassini’s gravity data show
There is salt water down below
Titan’s outer crust of ice,
And liquid water does entice.
Salt on Mars may also say
That water flows there some days.
Ten times the salt of earthly seas
But for a very few of these.
The Dead Sea harbors microbes small
That only thrive when rain drops fall.
Alga, fungi, biofilms
Find fresh water most welcome.
Yet methane found on Titan, Mars,
Cannot survive the sunlight scars.

Here's where NASA's Phoenix landed

Here’s where NASA’s Phoenix landed

On Earth we’d say that life is there
Releasing methane in the glare.
So is there life on Saturn’s moon?
Did Martian soils ever bloom?
Now we’re poised to learn more,
To fly the missions, and explore.

by Kate Rauner

There are many places to read about the solar system. Try one of these.